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Using IGWN credentials with HTCondor

If your workflow jobs require access to restricted IGWN services, you may need to configure your job to include an authorisation credential.

There are two types of credentials you can use with HTCondor jobs.


Work in progress

Documenting best-practice for using Kerberos credentials in an HTCondor workflow is a work in progress.

Please consider contributing to help us complete this section.


SciTokens are capabiltity tokens that inform services that the bearer of the token should be allowed access to a specific capability (e.g. read) on a specific service. See SciTokens for more details on what SciTokens are and how to use them in general.

For full details on specifying credentials in a job, please see

The basic usage valid for the majority of IGWN contexts is as follows:

Using a token in a job

To use a SciToken in an HTCondor job, add these commands to your HTCondor submit instructions:

use_oauth_services = <issuer>
<issuer>_oauth_resource = <service-url>
<issuer>_oauth_permissions = <capability>


  • <issuer> is the name of the token issuer to use. In all cases for production workflows this should be igwn. For some testing applications, you can use igwn-test.

  • <service-url> is the fully-qualified URL of the service to access. This is also referred to as the 'audience' (aud) of the token.

    This is optional, and will default to

    igwn_oauth_resource = ANY
  • <capability> is the access level that is needed. This is also referred to as the 'scope' (scope) of the token. This can be a space-separated list of multiple scopes.

    This is optional and will default to the default set of scopes for all users (as defined by

For example, to enable queries to the GWDataFind service located at you would use:

use_oauth_services = igwn
igwn_oauth_resource =
igwn_oauth_permissions =

With these instructions, HTCondor would automatically generate a new token for you, and would transfer it to the execute point into the .condor_creds directory. This is typically a subdirectory of the job scratch directory, but the value is stored in the $_CONDOR_CREDS environment variable.

For a single token job like above, the token filename will be igwn.use:

Single token path

For single-token jobs, the token will be generated on the execute machine as


which is typically the same as


Most IGWN scitoken clients should be able to automatically discover the appropriate token file inside the $_CONDOR_CREDS directory, so you shouldn't actually need to care where the token file exists at the execute point.

To use this token with client tools that do not support discovering tokens inside $_CONDOR_CREDS, you can set the environment variable BEARER_TOKEN_FILE in your condor submit file:

environment = "BEARER_TOKEN_FILE=$$(CondorScratchDir)/.condor_creds/igwn.use"

Tokens are shared across all jobs for a user

Tokens are generated and stored on the access point independently of the jobs that request them, so multiple concurrent or consecutive jobs may not use different token permissions without special considerations.

Submitting a second job that requires different token permissions from an existing job may result in a submission failure that looks something like this:

$ condor_submit science.sub
Submitting job(s)
condor_vault_storer: Credentials exist that do not match the request.
They can be removed by
  condor_store_cred delete-oauth -s igwn
but make sure no other job is using them.
  More details might be available by running
    condor_vault_storer -v "igwn&"

ERROR: (0) invoking /usr/bin/condor_vault_storer

The solution for this is to use token handles.

Token handles

Tokens may be given a 'handle' to allow HTCondor to distinguish between different sets of permissions and resources.

Handles are specified as a suffix to the <issuer>_oauth_resource and <issuer>_oauth_permissions commands, as follows:

use_oauth_services = igwn
igwn_oauth_resource_gracedb =
igwn_oauth_permissions_gracedb =

In the above example the handle is gracedb.

Tokens with handles are stored using the filename <issuer>_<handle>.use. In the above example, the token will be generated on the access point as


and made available on the execute point as


Using handles for tokens enables submitting multiple different jobs with different token capabilities without clashes.

Using handles for tokens also enables submitting a job that requires multiple tokens.

Multiple tokens

To use multiple SciTokens in an HTCondor job, specify multiple tokens with unique handles in the same set of submit commands:

use_oauth_services = igwn
igwn_oauth_resource_token1 = <service-url-1>
igwn_oauth_permissions_token1 = <capability-1>
igwn_oauth_resource_token2 = <service-url-2>
igwn_oauth_permissions_token2 = <capability-2>

This will generate multiple token files with the following names


For example, to enable queries to GWDataFind at and to GraceDB at in the same job:

use_oauth_services = igwn
igwn_oauth_resource_gwdatafind =
igwn_oauth_permissions_gwdatafind =
igwn_oauth_resource_gracedb =
igwn_oauth_permissions_gracedb =

Simpler to use a single, multi-capability token

While using multiple tokens is valid usage, it is probably simpler to use a single token with multiple capabilities.

Refactoring the above example:

use_oauth_services = igwn
igwn_oauth_resource =
igwn_oauth_permissions =


1. Downloading proprietary IGWN data via OSDF

The following HTCondor submit commands can be used to configure a job with the necessary permissions to transfer IGWN proprietary h(t) data from OSDF to a job:

use_oauth_services = igwn
igwn_oauth_permissions = read:/ligo read:/virgo
should_transfer_files = yes
transfer_input_files = igwn+osdf:///igwn/ligo/frames/O4/hoft_C00/H1/H-H1_HOFT_C00-137/H-H1_HOFT_C00-1373577216-4096.gwf

In the above example, the igwn+osdf URL 'scheme' includes the name for the token (igwn in this case), to tell the appropriate HTCondor file transfer plugin to use that access token when attempting to download the data.

Currently token handles are unsupported

Using token handles with OSDF URLs is currently unsupported.

Please follow for a resolution to this issue.

2. Reading proprietary IGWN data from CVMFS

The following condor submit commands can be used to configure a job with the necessary permissions to read IGWN proprietary h(t) data from CVMFS:

use_oauth_services = igwn
igwn_oauth_permissions = read:/ligo read:/virgo
environment = "BEARER_TOKEN_FILE=$$(CondorScratchDir)/.condor_creds/igwn.use"

Authenticated CVMFS requires $BEARER_TOKEN_FILE

The helper tool that does credential handling for CVMFS does not know to look into the $_CONDOR_CREDS directory of an HTCondor job, so it is required to set the BEARER_TOKEN_FILE environment variable to enable CVMFS to use the token transferred with the job.


X.509 is no longer fully supported

Identity-based X.509 credentials are deprecated in favour of capability-based SciTokens in almost all cases, so please consider using the instructions for tokens above.

For details on the timescale on which support for X.509 certificates will be fully dropped, please see

For details on which use cases still require X.509 over SciTokens, please contact the Computing and Software Working Group (

X.509 is a credential standard used to encode an identity so that a service can authenticate a request and enable capabilities based on its own records of what users should be allowed to do.

See X.509 for more details on what X.509 is and how to use it in general.

Using an X.509 credential in a job

Generate the X.509 credential manually

Using X.509 with HTCondor requires manually generating the credential before submitting the job.

Please see How to generate a credential for documentation on how to generate an X.509 credential.

To use an X.509 credential file in an HTCondor job, add one of the following commands to your submit instructions:

To automatically discover the credential file based on your environment:

use_x509userproxy = true

To manually specify the path of the credential file:

x509userproxy = /path/to/myproxy.pem

In either case, the credential will be transferred onto the execute machine with your job and its path encoded in the $X509_USER_PROXY environment variable.